Russian 16mm
While this page will attempt to cover the basics of commonly available Russian 16mm cine cameras, the information is intended simply as a quick guide for film makers who need access to relevant information about cameras they might find for sale or to use for their film project.  Of Russian 16mm cine cameras there are a few that dominate the second hand market: Kinor, Krasnogorsk K1, K2, K3, SP16, and Kiev 16U.  Most of these cameras have remained mostly unknown outside of Europe for many years.  Currently, if one searches for information, one finds there is very little information out there.  There is much anecdotal opinion on various chat or forum sites regarding using Russian cameras, opinions ranging from poor manufacturing quality, dodgy electrics, lack of manuals, to legendary reliability, robust design, and rugged durability.

While Russian 16mm cameras may lack many technological aspects of similar aged Western manufactured cameras, for the "barebones" film maker on a private budget, Russian equipment is quite attractive.  Potential owners of such equipment need to accept that purchasing a Russian camera will entail a learning experience.  lack of manuals mean experimenting or learning rudimentary Russian.  If budget is a big constraint, servicing will be D.I.Y, with it's own pitfalls, or patience as your service technician learns about the camera themselves.  Finding lenses may be a steep and expensive learning curve, as one has to learn different manufacturing standards, terminology, and again, lack of information.  Despite some obstacles, many people who purchase Russian cameras and make the effort to learn about them, foibles and benefits, often swear a better camera, dollar for dollar, cannot be found.            

Considering the amount of information on the internet, the really important info on these cameras is hardest to find.  For instance: 
What OCT mount is this camera? What is OCT? What lens will fit it? What is OKS/OKC? 
What voltage does this camera need?  Who can service this camera? All these dials are in Russian!

For historical factory information, keep searching the net... Or try this LINK for starters.
Camera Manuals
2008-krasnogorsk-3-manual.pdf 2008-krasnogorsk-3-manual.pdf
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Type : pdf
Kinor 16 CX-2M user manual.pdf Kinor 16 CX-2M user manual.pdf
Size : 5245.27 Kb
Type : pdf
An English translation of the original.
Using the Kinor 16 CX-2M.pdf Using the Kinor 16 CX-2M.pdf
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Type : pdf
A modern manual to fit the gaps between original manuals and current user.
Kinor 16 CX-1M Manual English translation.pdf Kinor 16 CX-1M Manual English translation.pdf
Size : 2127.31 Kb
Type : pdf
An English translation of the original.
Commonly available Russian 16mm cameras 
-Not intended as an complete list-

Kiev 16mm cameras were aimed more for amateur use.

Konvas 35mm and Kinor 16mm cameras were designed for professional use, either studio or newsreel.  An original Kinor 16 CX-1M/2M (English translation) manual download here: LINK

Krasnogorsk K3, K2, and K1 were designed for amateur/consumer use.  K3 is the latest design.  A modern K3 English manual here: LINK 

Krasnogorsk SP16 Russia's first 16mm reflex camera. Designed for professional use, made from 1956 to 1960(?) variable shutter, 30-170 degree, takes 30m and 60m cassettes, 8-64 fps.

Common Russian Camera Mounts

KMZ/krasnogorsk 16SP/SP-M: uses a bayonet mount, takes OKC2 and OKC1 lenses, (same lenses as Krasnogorsk 2 16mm)

Kinor 16 SX-1M and 2M: uses Kinor specific mount, 1M & 2M share lenses, magazines and motors.  Common lenses for Kinor 16mm are LOMO

Konvas-1 or 1M: uses OST-18 mount

Konvas-2Muses the OST-19 mount

Kiev 16U: takes lenses with M32x0.5 thread.

Krasnogorsk K3: takes M42 or Krasnogorsk Bayonet mount lenses

Basic Russian Cine Lens terminology

OST or OCT basically stands for "manufacturing standard" of mount types, ie: OST-18 or OST-19. 

OST-19 mounts were basically designed to accommodate larger lenses.  Russian 35mm cine cameras commonly have OST-19 mounts.  Lenses designed for 35mm cine cameras, with an OST-18 mount, can sometimes be used on 16mm cameras.  Check first! There are variances, an optical "block" for a 16mm suited frame area may not cover a 35mm frame area.

OKS or OKC: Basically means "cine lens"  


GOST is 90% of the ASA rating.  Conversely, ASA figures are 11% higher than GOST ratings.  For all practical purposes, GOST and ASA may be considered equivalent when using Colour print film.  Certainly the latitude of modern print films.

Reproduced from:
Russian Lens Numbering

The LOMO factory made lenses labelled OKS/OKC, the Krasnogorsk factory made lenses labelled RO.  There were numerous lens manufacturers.  More importantly are the numbers on the lens. 

The numbers on the side of the lens can be interpreted this way:

The first number denotes the number of designs.  The second number denotes the focal length, ie: 35 means 35mm.  The last number denotes the version of the modification.

16 – number of total designs,
35 – means 35mm focal length,
– version of modification of 16 design.

Early Kinor 16mm cameras use OKS1 lenses.  Later Russian 16mm cameras use OKS lenses with higher numbers, ie: OKS3, OKS6 or OKS8 etc.

For example: A Kinor 16-SX-1M or 2M camera can use a variety of lenses that are: OKS1-6-1, OKS2-15-1, or OKS3-15-1

The same lenses may be available in OST-18 and OST-19 mounts for other 16mm cine cameras.

There is a wide range of LOMO lenses produced for the Kinor 16.

The Krasnogorsk (or KMZ) SP16 has the same bayonet mount as other Krasnogorsk 16mm cameras, K1, K2, & K3.  However, the lenses designed for the K1 and K2 cameras are different to the high quality lenses made for the Krasnogorsk SP16.

Kinor 16mm lenses

The prime lenses are:

16 OKS 1-6-1 f/1.8 6 mm
16 OKS 3-10-1 f/2.1 10 mm
16 OKS 3-15-1 f/2 15 mm
16 OKS 2-20-1 f/1.9 20 mm
16 OKS 1-25-1 f/2.5 25 mm
16 OKS 8-35-1 f/2 35 mm
16 OKS 1-50-6 f/2 50 mm
16 OKS 1-75-1 f/2 75 mm
16 OKS 1-100-1 f/2 100 mm
16 OKS 1-150-1 f/2.8 150 mm
16 OKS 7-200-1 f/2.8 200 mm
16 OKS 6-300-1 f/3.5 300 mm
The zoom lenses are:

16 OPF 12-1 f/2.5 10-100 mm
16 OPF 1-2M-01 f/2.4 12-120mm

A wide angle adapter attaches to both lenses, which lends a 7.5-75 mm range to the 16 OPF 12-1 and a 9-90 mm range to the 16 OPF 1-2M-01.
Great site with lots of info about Lomo lenses.  A must see.

Very informative website detailing highly regarded vintage Russian lenses with examples.

Note: As I have little experience with these lens standards, I have collated information from the various websites below. 

The above video is of a person assembling a Kinor 16mm camera ready to shoot film.  The video is posted on Silvergrain Classics

The above video is of a person loading and setting up to shoot a Krasnogorsk KMZ 16SP

The above video is of Olexandr Kalynychenko displaying how to adjust the Kinor 16 viewfinder

The above video is a very detailed disassembly by Nakanocam.

Russian 16mm websites

Olex Services A renowned 16mm & 35mm Russian camera repair and service person.  Website also contains lots of information on these cameras. Invaluable resoource! A very handy site with much information on Russian cameras

Kiev 16U Informative website regarding this often over looked 16mm camera.

K3camera An absolute must see for film makers seeking to use or update their Russian Krasnogorsk 3 or K-3 camera.

Foley's Film School An informative site detailing how to load a Krasnogorsk 3 or K-3 camera.

Auto-loading K-3 Fascinating video of a K-3 auto-loading, previously never seen or attempted!

A interesting French site with great tips and information for the modern film maker.
        Kinor-16 Common IssuesAn off shoot site of "Olex Services" detailing with pictures some 
issues to watch for when maintaining Kinor 16mm cameras.

Kinor 16 CX-2M A very informative Blog detailing the famous Russian Kinor camera and footage shot with one.

RafCamera A detailed website selling a variety of lenses and lens adapters for Russian 16mm cameras.  just not Kinor 16

Kinor 16 CX-2M Repair A website related to this one detailing a D.I.Y repair and lube, lots of handy info 
Svema Film-brief history One page of many on the KinoKultura website, worth a long read..

Kinor Operator An interesting Russian site with a good selection of information on the Kinor Very interesting and humourous website, lots of very good info for beginner and experienced K3 users, a must read!
kinofototeh An interesting Russian site with a good selection of literature on many popular various gauge Russian cameras, 
Kinor 16mm Wiki A great place to start looking into the Kinor 16mm cameras, lots of good links. 
 Commiecameras  Website focuses on still cameras built during Soviet Union. Includes good info on lens types
Intro to Russian Lenses   A very informative run down on common, affordable, high quality lenses made in Russia

Lens Information Courtesy of:


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